Warmer temperatures combined with the excitement (and need) to get crops in the ground triggered planting around Ohio April 18-April 24 or even before. With some warm days without much precipitation forecasted for April 25-May 1, planting continued. However, cold temperatures and precipitation after planting can cause imbibitional chilling, and this is something that we should certainly be aware of and watch for.
Imbibitional chilling may occur in corn and soybean seeds if the soil temperature is below 50°F when the seed imbibes (rapidly takes up water from the soil, usually within 24 hours after planting). Imbibitional chilling can cause reductions in stand and seedling vigor. If seeds were planted into soil with at least 50°F of temperature and adequate moisture (at least 40-50% plant available water) for at least 1 day, the drop in temperature is not likely to lead to imbibitional chilling issues. Cold injury to seedings during emergence may still be a possibility, but until we know how cold the soil gets its unclear how severe that issue may be (if evident at all).
Past work in soybeans suggest the temperature in the first 8-12 hours post-planting is critical to prevent imbibitional chilling. When seeds were planted in temperatures between 75-80°F and kept there for 8-12 hours, reducing temperatures to 40-45°F afterward did not result in severe crop injury. For corn, 24 hours imbibing at warm temperatures prior to cold (40°F) did not result in imbibitional chilling injury. Despite warmer air temperatures over the last few days, soil temperatures may have been still cold (less than 50°F) at recommended planting depths. Given these conditions, there may be some risk for crop injury.
It is best to assess damage to seeds 48-96 hours after the drop in temperatures, as symptoms may take a few days to appear. Additionally, cold temperatures slow growing-degree-day (GDD) accumulation and may further delay crop emergence and establishment. Recent work in the literature suggests that 50% emergence can be expected following accumulation of 130-170 soil GDDs (using soil temperature to calculate GDD rather than air temperatures) from the time of planting, which may take 5-7 days to accumulate under normal weather conditions. Depending on the damage assessed during the field assessments, replanting options may need to be considered.